Focus on the lithium battery industry: lithium batteries are not scary but they are durable
The widely circulated online queries about lithium batteries include: lithium batteries, deadly, short-lived, exploive-prone, harsh conditions; Not being able to recycle, creating huge environmental pressures... Is that true? People's Daily "verify" column continues to interview several industry experts to find out the truth.
Lithium batteries are deadly dangerous goods.
Response: the lithium battery contains no toxic substances, and the effect is much smaller than the lead-acid battery
"Lithium ion batteries and lithium batteries are strictly conceptually different." China automotive technology research center, chief expert power batteries, battery test and application of technology alliance secretary-general, said wang fang, senior engineers usually refers to the lithium battery of lithium metal or lithium alloy anode, the use of liquid water electrolysis cell. The lithium ion battery refers to a rechargeable battery, and the cathode is not lithium metal. It relies on lithium ions to move between positive and negative poles. In daily life, however, lithium ion batteries are used as lithium batteries or lithium.
We have learned, at present, the promotion of new energy vehicles (including pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle) mostly USES lithium ion battery, which accounted for 80%, 90%, lithium iron phosphate ternary lithium batteries are also beginning to large-scale application in passenger car.
In view of the network the article points out that the lithium battery is "highly toxic dangerous goods", wang fang has rejected the lithium battery than traditional such as lead acid, nickel, chromium, nickel metal hydride batteries, do not produce any poisonous and harmful heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium and material, relatively less pollution. And its electrolyte is organic solvent and lithium salt, mostly non-toxic or hypotoxic; However, li-ion battery decomposition or hydrolysis products are hydrofluoric acid and other fluorinated compounds, which are corrosive and toxic.
He said "lithium battery poisonous", researcher at the institute of China electronics technology group 18 level senior engineer, hao-jie liu said lithium-ion battery itself is not toxic substances, the cathode carbon and metal oxide anode basic is not toxic. Because lithium ion batteries belong to the sealing system, normal use is not exposed to these substances. "In any case, its impact is far less than the most widely used lead-acid batteries."
The lithium battery life is short, the use condition is harsh?
Response: the lithium-ion battery life can reach 2000 cycles, and the battery management system can be limited to "overcharged."
How long is the current life of lithium? Will shallow filling and overcharging affect battery safety and life span?
"Decision power lithium ion battery service life there are many factors, including the characteristics of the system itself, also includes the manufacturing process, operating conditions, etc. High quality battery system, coupled with scientific management system, can achieve a long service life." According to wang fang, the current life of power battery can reach 2,000 cycles, according to the 100 % discharge depth test.
"Overcharging means that the voltage of the battery in the charging and discharging process exceeds or below the specified cut-off voltage, which can be harmful to the battery's performance and life span." But the BMS battery management system in the battery limits and protects the battery, limiting the battery charge at low temperatures and recharging it when heated to the right temperature, wang said. Said wang fang, in order to ensure the safety of the lithium ion battery, the battery monomer, module to battery systems have a series of safety protection design, prevent the battery overcharge pass wen, when abnormal timely alarm and protection.
"Tianjin 18 proves that lithium batteries have been burned and exploded in almost every project in high temperature, high pressure, puncture, and over-filling," the article said.
In response, the Chinese chemical and physical power industry association secretary general yan-long liu said, the end of May 2014, China electronics technology group institute 18 special media interview, but battery burning explosion occur in the program is in accordance with the requirements of taping, remove the protective circuit, caused by the abuse of the experiments. The main purpose of the experiment was to give users a sense of the potential dangers of a three-way lithium battery without protective measures.
"Lithium ion battery safety is theoretically controlled, causing safety problems in the case of product defects and abuse." "Liu said. "But the safety of pure battery monomers, modules and systems is not enough to guarantee the absolute safety of electric vehicles carrying lithium batteries." Ningde era of new energy technology co., LTD. (CATL) chairman li ping is introduced, the current distribution Model - S used the 7104 pieces of panasonic ternary lithium battery, the battery safe protection, including sensors, is controlled by the battery control system, such as extensive use of high strength aluminum alloy material collision protection, etc. In the case of these safety designs, the probability of safety accidents is one in 10,000.
Researcher at the institute of China electronics technology group 18 level senior engineer qing-hua wang also pointed out that at present the electric car battery products on the market the good and bad are intermingled, some manufacturers of battery problems of poor consistency, and the effect of management system play a little, a monomer problems can produce certain effect to the whole life of the battery pack. Wang suggested that the government raise test verification standards and strengthen supervision and inspection of the electric car market.
Waste lithium battery pollution uncontrollable?
Response: due to the relatively small environmental risks, the lithium battery has not been included in the management of hazardous waste, but the recovery and reuse system should be arranged as soon as possible
Is there a mandatory recycling policy for lithium batteries? Is it possible to put a lot of environmental pressure on a used lithium battery? The waste batteries, which are being managed by the environmental sector at this stage, include the waste cadmium nickel battery and the waste lead-acid battery, wang said. For disposable batteries, lithium ion batteries, nimh batteries, etc., because of its relatively small environmental risk, it is not included in the management of hazardous waste.
Waste lithium ion battery into the environment, however, the electrode material, electrolyte and other substances in the environment such as hydrolysis, oxidation reaction, may be the cause of nickel, cobalt, manganese and other heavy metal ions pollution, fluorine pollution and some organic pollutants. So, are these pollution manageable?
Wang fang said, in view of the processing of lithium ion batteries, the national development and reform commission, the ring endowment department to draft the electric vehicle power battery recycling policy (2015 edition) ", to encourage the wet smelting technology processing waste lithium ion battery, nickel, cobalt, manganese recovery shall be not less than 98%. "For the treatment of lithium-ion batteries, our country has been conducting research teams and conducting cooperation with the United States." Wang fang said.
On January 8, the ministry has released the new energy automobile waste comprehensive utilization of power battery industry standard announcement management interim measures (draft) ", probes into the new energy automobile waste comprehensive utilization of power battery enterprise implements the dynamic management, relevant professional institutions entrusted to assist the management of public announcement.
China electronics technology group co., LTD., chief expert, the researcher level senior engineer Hu Shuqing said, in the iron phosphate lithium cobalt, manganese acid lithium and low content of three yuan materials for the positive active material of lithium ion battery, because of the low recycling business value, enterprise interest is not high. The recycling of these old batteries must be introduced by the state to make the industry close. Some policies and standards have been introduced in China, such as the classification of waste batteries, storage and transportation, solid waste and hazardous waste pollution control technology policies, but not enough.
"Lithium ion battery recycling and reuse, should be laid out as early as possible." 863 national energy saving and new energy automobile project supervision consulting team Wang Binggang said, set up power battery recycling system, to improve the standardization of the battery, establishing code tracking system, implementing strict rewards and punishment measures as well as to the recycling enterprise qualification management etc.